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[资源共享] 考研英语写作的整体模式(吐血推荐)

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发表于 2008-11-20 02:28:25 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
考研英语写作的整体模式(吐血推荐)

考研英语写作文章的常规整体构建模式

  考研英语写作的文章一般包括一个开头段、若干扩展段和一个结尾段。开头段和结尾段一般比扩展段短。各种段落的作用、特点和写作方法如下所示。

  1.开头段

  开头段一定要语言精练,并且直接切入主题。开头段一般不对主题进行深入的探讨,具体的论证或叙述应该在扩展段进行。一般在开头段写四、五句即可。考生应注意以下若干要点:

  1)开头段的作用

  概括陈述主题,提出观点或论点,表明写作意图。

  2)写开头段时考生应该避免的若干问题

  ①开头偏离主题太远;

  ②使用抱歉或埋怨之词句;

  ③内容不具体,言之无物;

  ④使用不言自明的陈述。

  3)开头段的表达方法

  ①使用引语(use a quotation)

  使用一段名人名言,或人们常用的谚语、习语,以确定文章的写作范围和方向。

  例:

  “Great minds must be ready not only to take the opportunity, but to make them.”Colton, a great writer once remarked. But it still has a profound significance now. To a person, in whose lifetime opportunities are not many, to make opportunities is more essential to his success.

  ②使用具体详实的数字或数据(use figures or statistics)

  引用一些具体详实的数字或数据,然后作出概括性分析,指明问题的症结所在。

  例:In the past 5 years there has been a marked decline in the number of young married couples who want to have children, coupled with a growing trend toward delayed childbearing. According to official statistics, in 2003, about 28 percent of married couples with wives under 35 gave no birth to children, compared with the 1993 level of 8 percent.

  ③提出问题(ask a question)

  提出有争议或探讨性的具体问题,然后加以简要回答或展开引导性简短讨论。

  例:What do you want from your work? Money? Promotions? Interesting challenges? Continual learning? Work-based friendships? The opportunity to develop your own idea and potentials? Though we are all individuals and so our answers will differ, all agree that work provide more than material things.

  ④给出背景(offer relevant background)

  描述具体事件的时间、地点和发生背景等。

  例:Once in a newspaper I read of a crowd of people who remained appallingly indifferent to the plea of a mother. As she failed to offer the required amount of cash as a price to save her drowning son, the woman at last watched her son sink to death. The story is not rare in newspapers and on TV, and the casualness and detachment our people now have developed has aroused nationwide concern.

  ⑤定义法(give definition)

  针对讨论的主题或问题加以定义,然后进行深入探讨。

  例:Flexibility is defined as being adaptable to change. In the course of your lifetime, it is essential that you learn to bend and flex around every new circumstance, as rigidity deprives you of the opportunity to see new possibilities. Paradigms change over time, and so must you. Your company may restructure, and you will have to survive. Your spouse may choose to leave the marriage, and you will have to cope. Technology will continue to advance and change, and you must constantly learn and adapt or risk becoming a dinosaur. Flexibility allows you to be ready for whatever curve lies ahead in life instead of getting blindsided by it.

  ⑥主题句法(use of topic sentence)

  文章一开始就以主题句点明全文主题,然后围绕主题内容进行发展。例:

  Now people become increasingly aware of the importance of acquiring a mastery of a foreign language. To them, the knowledge of a foreign language, say, English, often means a good opportunity for one’s career, even a passport to a prosperous future. Many of them equate success in life with the ability of speaking a foreign language.

  4)开头段的常用核心句型

The arguer may be right about…, but he    (takesintosaccount) the fact that….seems to neglect (fail) to mention

As    beliefopposed to (Contrary to) widely (commonly / generally) held (accepted) (ideas / views), I believe (argue) that…

Although many people believe that…,    bears much analysis (closeI doubt (wonder)whether the argument examination).

The advantages of B outweigh any benefit we gained from (carry    than those of / are much greater than) A.more weight

Although it is    agreed) that…, it iscommonly (widely / generally) held (felt / accepted / unlikely to be true that….

There is an element of truth in this argument    a deeper and more basic (important / essential)(statement), but it ignores fact (reason) that….

It is true that (True, / To be sure, / Admittedly,)…,    say (it is unlikely / it doesn’t follow / it doesn’t meanbut this is not to / it won’t be the case) that….

The main (obvious / great) problem (flaw /    argument (view / remark) is that it is ignorant ofdrawback) with (in) this (blind to) the basic (bare) fact that….

It would be possible (natural /    view) that…, but it would be absurdreasonable) to think (believe / take the (wrong) to claim (argue) that….

In all the discussion and debate over…, one    generally overlooked (neglected).important (basic) fact is

There is    / resist /absolutely (in fact) no (every) reason for us to believe (accept reject) that….

Logical (Valid / Sound) as this argument and I wholeheartedly    it, it appears insignificant (absurd) when…isagree with takensintosconsideration(account).

To assume (suggest) that…is far from   being proved (to miss the point).

A close (careful) inspection    would reveal how flimsy (groundless(examination / scrutiny) of this argument /fallacious) it is.

On the surface (At first thought), it (this) may seem a    attractive) suggestion (solution / idea), but careful weighing onsound (an the mind (on closer analysis / on second thought), we find that…

Too much    to)…may obscureemphasis placed on (attention paid to / importance attached (overlook / neglect) other facts….

The danger (problem / fact / truth /   point) is that….

What the arguer fails to understand (consider / mention)   is that….

We don’t have to look very far to see (find out) the truth    this argument (proposition).(validity) of

However just (logical / sound    the surface of the/ valid) this argument may be, it only skims problem.

Among the most convincing (important) reasons given (cited / offered    identified) by people for…, one should be stressed (emphasized // mentioned).

  As far as I am concerned, however, I believe that….

I   believe that the title statement is valid because (of)….

I agree with the   above statement because I believe that….

Although I appreciate that…, I   cannot agree with the title statement.

There is a public controversy    object to…argue that…. But people whonowadays over the issue of…. Those who favor…, on the other hand, argue that….

Currently (In recent years / In the    there is (has been) a(n) generalpast few years / For many years now), (widespread / growing / widely held) feeling towards (concern over / attitude towards / trend towards / awareness of / realization of / illusion of / belief in)….

Now it is commonly (widely / generally / increasingly) believed    held / accepted/ felt / recognized / acknowledged) that…. But I(thought / wonder (doubt) whether….

These days we are often told that (often hear    the case?about)…, but is this really

  2.中间段

  中间段是文章的正文,其作用是从不同的层面对文章主题进行具体和详实的解释和论证。

  1)中间段的一般特征

  ①篇幅一般比开头段和结尾段长。

  ②每段有相应的主题句。

  ③包含定义、解释、描写,说明主题思想的扩展句可以采用实例、数据或个人经历等写作手段。

  ④不同种类的段落采用不同的扩展手段。

  2)中间段的具体特点

  ①所涉及内容应该准确、清楚,颇具说服力;

  ②段落中一定具备主题句;

  ③段落内容应该保持完整、统一,没有说明不足之处或多余冗长的细节;

  ④内容顺序安排合理,逻辑性较强;

  ⑤段落之间连贯自然;

  ⑥段落中讨论的内容主次分明,材料比例适当;

  ⑦词与句型运用合理并且有变化。

  3)中间段展开的基本方法

  ①列举法

  例文:

  There are a number of ways for us to keep fit. First, no matter how busy we are, we should have exercise every day to strengthen our muscles. Second, it is important to keep good hours. For example, if we are in the habit of going to bed early and getting up early, we can avoid overworking ourselves and get enough sleep. Finally, entertainment is also necessary so that we may have some moments of relaxation. If we follow those instruction. We will certainly be in good health.

  ②比较对比法

  例文:

  The older form of communication is speech. In the beginning of human history, people could only use direct verbal speech to communicate. But it had many shortcomings. For instance, we could not speak to a person far away when we needed. So distance was a problem. And the spoken word could not be kept secret easily. So people wanted to invent a new method of communication. The next big step forward in communication was the invention of writing. Writing is one of human being’s most important inventions. It solved the problem of distance and keeping secrets, but it too had disadvantages. The written word could not be passed on quickly, so people tried to find a new quicker method of communication.

  The most recent development had been electronic means of communication, including the wireless telegraph, radio, telephone and television. The invention and use of electronic means has solved all the problems mentioned above. They are the most effective methods of communication. People will certainly try their best to invent even more modem and useful methods.

  ③因果法

  例文:

  The hamburger is the most popular food item in the United States. Every year Americans consume billions of them. They are sold in expensive restaurants and in humble diners. They are cooked at home on the kitchen stove or over a barbecue grill in the backyard. Why are they so popular?

  First, a hamburger is extremely easy to prepare. It is nothing more than a piece of ground beef, cooked for a few minutes. Then it is placed in a sliced bun. Nothing could be simpler. Even an unskilled cook can turn out hundreds of them in an hour. Besides that, the simple hamburger can be varied in many ways. You can melt some cheese on top of the beef to create a cheeseburger.

  You can also add some grilled bacon for an interesting flavor contrast. In addition, you can garnish the hamburger with other things such as lettuce, tomato, onion, mushrooms, avocado, pickles, hot pepper, ketchup, relish, mayonnaise, mustard or whatever you wish!

  ④例证法

  例文:

  The saying“No pains, no gains”is universally accepted because of the plain yet philosophical moral it teaches: if one wants to achieve something, he has to work and tolerate more than others. The saying is true of any pursuit man seeks. A case in point is boxing. While we heap cheers on the winner, few happen to imagine that his gold belt is won at the cost of his sweat, tears, blood, even life over years before the arrival of that exciting moment.

  ⑤发展过程法

  例文:

  To build your own sunscope, get a carton and cut a hole in one side, big enough to poke your head through. Paste white paper on the inside surface that you will be facing. Then punch a pinholesintosthe opposite side high enough so that the little shaft of light will miss your head. For a sharper image you can make a better pinhole by cutting a one-inch square hole in the carton, taping a piece of aluminum foil over this hole, and then making the pin-hole in the foil. Finally, tape the box shut and cover all light leaks with black tape.

  ⑥定义法

  例文:

  Diligence is the key to success. It means persistent work and does not mean that we are to exert ourselves all day and night without rest, without food and without sleep. The true meaning of diligence is the careful use of time for the purpose of improvement, or to work persistently without any waste of time.

  ⑦分类法

  例文:

  Nowadays the news media mainly consists of radio, television and newspapers. Each type has its own advantages and disadvantages. Newspapers are the oldest form for communicating the news. Today many people still begin their day by reading the morning paper whileshavingsbreakfast, and end their day by reading the evening paper whileshavingsdinner.

  The invention of the radio has had a tremendous influence on the world. It is able to bring up-to-minute news to distant places in a matter of seconds. Thus the development of the radio has made the world a smaller place.

  Television is the most recently developed device for communication. It allows us to see as well as to hear the news. The fact that it enables people to see visual images has had a considerable effect on our perceptions of world event.

  4)中间段的常用核心句型

Although the popular belief is    (survey / poll / investigation)that…, a current (new / recent) study indicates (shows / demonstrates) that….

  Common sense tells us that….

  The increase (change / failure / success) in…mainly (largely / partly) results from (arises from / is because of)….

The increase (change / failure /    attributable to) the fact that….success) in…is due to (owing to /

Many   people would claim that….

One may attribute (ascribe / owe) the increase    but…is not by itself an adequate explanation.(decrease / change ) to…,

  One of the reasons given for…is that….

What is also worth noticing is   that….

There are many (different / several /a number of / a variety    (reasons) for this dramatic (marked / significant) growth (change /of)causes decline / increase) in…. First,…. Second,…. Finally,….

There is no evidence   to suggest that….

Why are (is / do / did)…? For one thing,…. For   another,….

  Another reason why I dispute the above statement is that….

  It gives rise to (lead to / bring /create) a host of problems (consequences).

There are numerous reasons why…, and I shall here explore    the most important ones.only a few of

It will exert (have / produce)    considerable / beneficial / favorable /profound (far-reaching / remarkable / undesirable / disastrous) effect (influence) on….

A multitude of factors    in / influence) thecould account for (contribute to / lead to / result change (increase / decrease / success / failure / development) in….

In 2000,    the total (toit increased (rose / jumped / shot up) from 5 to 10 percent of 15 percent / by 15 percent).

By comparison with 2002, it decreased (dropped /    percent (to 15 percent / by 15 percent).fell) from 10 to 5

It accounts   for 15 percent of the total.

There were 100 traffic accidents in April, an    five-month period.increase of 5 percent in a

By 2002, only (less than /    three quarters (40 percent ofmore than / almost / about / over/ as many as) / one out of five / one in four) college population (graduates / housewives) as against (as compared with) last year (2002) preferred to (liked)….

With the   development (improvement / rise / growth / general recognition / acknowledgement / realization) of…, vast changes awaits this country’s society.

  Now people in growing (ever-increasing / significant) numbers are beginning (coming / getting) to believe (realize / recognize / understand / accept / see / be aware) that….

According to a(n) recent (new / official)    poll),….study (survey / report /

History (Our society) is filled   (abounds) with the examples of….

The story (case / instance / situation)    it is one of many examples (typical ofis not rare (isolated / unique), dozens).

A (one) recent (new / general / nationwide) study (survey / poll    investigation) conducted (taken) at a university by (officials / scientists/ / experts) indicates (reveals / suggests / shows / proves / demonstrates) that….

According to (As can be seen in / As is shown in) the figures    / findings / data / graph / table) released (provided) by the(statistics government (an institute), it can be learned (seen / predicted) that….

There    evidenceis (no) good (every / little / sufficient / considerable / strong) (proof) to

Personal experience (Examples I heard / read of) leads me to    that….conclude

  We must admit the undeniable fact that….

No one can    factdeny (ignore / doubt / overlook / obscure / brush aside) the that….

  Experience (Evidence) suggests (shows) that….

Take for   example…who (that)….

  The same is true of….

As the saying   goes,“….”

  3.结尾段

  结尾段的写作方法可以归纳为下列若干种:

  1)总结归纳

  简要总结归纳文章要点,以便深化主题印象。

  例:In conclusion I would like to say that change is a problem confronting most of us today. The changes which have already taken place in every field of our life are irreversible. Continuation of the growth which has already begun is inevitable. During this evolution there are great rewards to be won—by those who are willing to take the opportunities being offered.

  2)重申主题

  再次强调和确定文章开头阐述的中心思想。

  例:Admittedly, science has created atomic bombs and produced pervasive pollution. But it has transformed the lives of millions of people. It has multiplied man’s energy, hopes, ambitions and understanding. It has elevated and will continue to elevate man intellectually and spiritually.

  3)预测展望

  立足当前,放眼未来。

  例:It is time that the government should speak out against corruption and take strong action to punish whoever takes bribes or embezzles fund. For present official corruption, if permitted to continue, will not only tarnish the government’s popularity, but lead to its ultimate downfall.

  4)提出建议

  提出解决问题的途径、方法或呼吁人们采取相应的行动。

  例:College athletics plays such a vital role that it deserves close attention and persistent effort. It is suggested that physical training should be regarded as a required course wedgedsintoscollege curricula, however crowded it may be, and that a fair share of college budget should be devoted to athletic programs. We sincerely hope that this suggestion will be a commitment that all colleges and universities will take up.

  5)提出问题

  提出具有发人深省的问题,从而突出中心思想。

  例:Old people may choose to live alone for themselves and even embrace this living pattern. But in the deep part of their hearts, they must feel lonely. They need their children to stay with, to talk with, and take care of them. Why can’t young people think of the days when they are getting old?

  6)引用格言

  用格言、谚语或习语总括全文中心思想。

  例:Many yeas ago, a great philosopher Francis Bacon remarked that“Knowledge…is power.”This can now be translatedsintoscontemporary terms. In our social setting,“Knowledge is change”—and accelerating knowledge-acquisition, fueling the great engine of technology, means accelerating change.

  7)结尾段的核心句型

From what has been discussed above    / Judging from all evidence offered),(Takingsintosaccount all these factors we may safely draw (reach / come to / arrive at) the conclusion that….

All    pointsthe evidence (analysis) supports (justifies / confirms / warrants / to) a(n) unshakable (unmistakable / sound / just) conclusion that….

It is    emphasishigh time that we place (lay / put) great (special / considerable) on the improvement (development / increase / promotion) of….

It is high time    undesirable / deplorable)that we put an end to the deep-seated (unhealthy / situation (tendency / phenomenon) of….

We must look (search / call / cry)    measure), because the present (current)for an immediate action (method / situation (phenomenon / tendency / state / attitude) of…, if permitted (allowed) to continue (proceed), will surely (certainly) lead to (result in) the end (destruction / heavy cost) of….

There is no easy (immediate / effective)    remedy) to the problem of…, but…might be usefulsolution (approach / answer / (helpful / beneficial).

No easy method (solution / recipe / remedy) can be at    guaranteed) to solve (resolve / tackle) the problem of…, buthand (found / the common (general / public) recognition of (realization of / awareness of / commitment to) the necessity (importance / significance) of…might be the first step towards change (on the right way / in the right direction).

Following    (solution to)…,these methods (suggestions) may not guarantee the success in but the pay-off will be worth the effort.

Obviously (Clearly / No doubt), if    there is every chance that….we ignore (are blind to) the problem,

Unless    very likelythere is a common realization of (general commitment to)…, it is (the chances are good) that….

There is little doubt (no denying) that serious    immediate / further) attention must be called (paid /(special / adequate / devoted) to the problem of….

It is necessary (essential / fundamental) that    action (steps /measures / remedies) should beeffective (quick / proper) taken to prevent (correct /check / end / fight) the situation (tendency / phenomenon).

It is hoped (suggested / recommended) that great (continuous /    / sustained / corporate) efforts should be made to control (check/persistent halt / promote) the growth (increase / rise) of….

It is hoped that great    focused on) finding (developingefforts should be directed to (expended on / / improving)….

It remains to be seen whether…, but the prospect (outlook) is    encouraging (that rosy).not quite

Anyhow, wider (more) education    (potential / grave /serious /(publicity) should be given to the possible pernicious) consequences (effects) of….

To reverse (check / control) the    easy job), and it requires (demandstrend (tendency) is not a light task (an / involves / entails) a different state of mind towards (attitude towards / outlook on)….

  For these reasons, I strongly recommend that….

For the reasons given above, I feel   that….

  4.段落扩展中的常用词语

  1)总结关系过渡词语

  generally speaking, generally, as a general rule, in general, on a larger scale, to take the idea further, to take the above opinion to an extreme, in a sense, in one sense, in a way, to some extent, in my opinion, in my view, as for me, as far as I am concerned, obviously, undoubtedly, in terms of, in conclusion, in short, in brief, in summary, in a word, on the whole, to sum up, to conclude

  2)比较对比关系过渡词语

  similarly, likewise, like, too, equally important, the same as, in common, in the same way, on the contrary, on the one hand, on the other hand, otherwise, in sharp contrast, whereas, rather than, conversely, instead, in/by contrast, but, however, yet, nevertheless

  3)列举关系过渡词语

  for example, for instance, as an example, as a case in point, such as, namely, that is, like, thus, first, second, third, finally, in the first place, initially, first of all, to begin with, to start with, what is more, furthermore, eventually, besides, in addition (to that), first and foremost, last but not least, next, also, moreover, for one thing, for another

  4)因果关系过渡词语

  because (of), as, since, for, owing to, due to, thanks to, on account of, as a result of, result in (from), consequently, for the reason that, as a consequence, consequently, if follows that, accordingly, therefore, hence

  5)让步关系过渡词语

  although, even though, after all, in spite of, despite, granted that

  6)强调关系过渡词语

  anyway, certainly, surely, obviously, to be sure, especially, particularly, above all, in deed, in fact, even worse, needless to say, most important of all, no doubt

  五、考研英语写作程序

  由于时间的限制及题型的要求,考生必须遵循一定的写作程序并且合理地分配时间,以便从容地完成较高水平的写作。下面的考研英语写作程序及时间分配,供考生参考并灵活地加以运用。

  1.审题过程(2-3分钟)

  所谓“审题”,就是仔细地研究、理解题目,即根据题目所提供的条件和要求,来确定文章的内容、体裁和写法。这一过程直接关系到写作的成败,即是否“切题”。审题应该包含下列四个方面:

  1)审文体

  文体是对文章的一种规格要求,不同的文体,在写作上有不同的规格要求。命题作文一般采用议论文文体;规定情景作文通常以描写文、叙述文为主;图表作文通常采用说明文;然而,段首句作文,应视具体内容而定。

  2)审内容

  了解题目在内容方面的要求决定写什么,这是审题的关键。

  3)审材料

  审查考题在选材范围方面的要求,考题对材料有特定的限制,故考生应在题目限制的范围内选取材料。

  简言之,选材的一般要点包含:

  ①选择真实的材料;

  ②选择典型的材料;

  ③选择鲜活的材料;

  ④选择最能展现主题的材料。

  4)审要求

  审查考题在格式、字数、时间、内容等诸多方面的具体要求。

  总之,如果审题不当,文章跑题;审题不周,文不切题;审题不全,遗漏重点。因此,考生一定要严把审题关。

  2.构思过程(5-7分钟)

  一旦确定了主题,就开始构思选材。选材的思路围绕题目、提示、数据、图形和所给的提纲来进行。考生应从自己所熟悉的素材中筛选出最能表达和说明主题的内容,思路要灵活,想象要丰富,同时要有创新,避免落入写作俗套。在此基础上,草拟出作文提纲,提纲要简明扼要,能抓住段落主题。同时,考生对文章段落展开的方法、过渡句和句型等也要有所考虑。

  从历年考研英语写作试题来分析,写作题目大多已给出了基本的提纲或相应的要求。在这种情况下,考生可将给出的提纲扩展成相应的主题句,这样便迅速地拟出了一个详细且完整的写作提纲。

  拟出带有主题句的具体提纲,才能围绕主题句构思出要写的内容,选出展现主题的最佳素材,形成一条清楚的写作主线,然后根据主线具体地提出和回答what, who, when, how, why等一系列考题规定的问题。

  3.下笔创作过程(20-25分钟)

  下笔创作过程即段落的展开,考生要用贴切的词与句将自己的所思所想所感一层层地明确表达出来。

  考生要注意以下几点:

  1)段落应有段落的主题,并且段落中所涉及的内容都是为文章主题服务的。

  2)写初稿时要一气呵成,尽量不使用自己没有把握的词语或句型。

  3)在下笔创作的过程中可以适当修改提纲,注意不要脱离主题。

  4)注意利用过渡词和过渡句使句子和段落结构严谨连贯,也使内容更易于展开。

  4.检查与修改过程(3-5分钟)

  初稿一定存在着某些不妥之处,故需要最后订正。

  首先检查内容是否切题,论点是否明确,论据是否充分,结论是否合理,然后检查语法是否正确,语句是否通顺,用词是否贴切,数字是否准确,表达是否恰当,拼写是否正确,标点是否得当等等。

  六、考研英语写作常见题型

  如果考生想在较短的时间内对考研英语写作有所认识、有所突破,首先应该了解考研英语写作常见题型,并弄懂各种题型的写作技巧,然后进行有针对性的练习,并且研读相关范文。考研英语写作中的常见题型如下:

  1.提纲题型写作

  1)写作要点

  ①认真研究所给提纲

  考生要注意领会提纲的含义,不要遗漏提纲要点或错误理解提纲的意思。

  ②确定各段的主题句

  考生应根据所给提纲写出各段的主题句,合格的主题句应具备以下四个要点:

  •意义完整主题句结构要完整,即结构符合语法规则;意义要完整,即主题句是一个符合逻辑的完整命题。

  •表意清晰主题句要清晰明确,不使用意思含混的词或句子。

  •内容具体主题句的内容要明确具体,否则不利于段落的拓展。

  •用词贴切主题句一定要用词准确,简明达意,使段落的拓展有一个良好的基础。

  ③逐步展开段落

  段落写作应围绕自己列好的主题句进行,在写作过程中可稍加调整。

  ④检查与修改

  检查考题所给提纲是否准确且完整地被表达于文章之中,如有偏差,应作出相应的修改。

  2)提纲题型写作试题实例①写作题目Title: THE“PROJECT HOPE”Outline:

  1. Present situation

  2. Necessity of the project

  3. My suggestion

  ②参考范文:

  Education plays a very significant role in the modernization of our country. There are, however, still a large number of school-agers in remote and isolated rural areas who can’t afford to go to school because of their financial predicament. This is a very serious problem which needs to be resolved as soon as possible. Thus, the Chinese authorities have worked out a plan to assist them financially, which is called“Project Hope”.

  This project, I do believe, is of most importance and necessity. To begin with, as a developing country, China is unlikely to inject a huge amount of money in education at present. So education has to turn to the general public to find its way out. Secondly, with the financial assistance of the general public, many of the poor children who have dropped out of school can go back to go on with their schooling. This will, in turn, contribute a great deal to the expansion of the rural economy in our remote and isolated rural areas. Apparently, the Project Hope is of profound significance for the modernization of our country.

  As for me, a university student, my suggestions are as follows. In the first place, our government should encourage more of the public in cities to finance the project. In addition, it is most necessary to set up a special foundation to receive the contributions donated by the public at home and abroad. Last but not least, those in charge of the project are supposed to make sure that the money is directly sent to the families whose children have dropped out of school. In short, I am convinced that the project will be fruitful and successful in the long run. (284 words)

  2.图画题型写作

  图画题型写作是较难的题型之一,近两年考研英语写作试题均为图画题型,故考生应该认真对待。面对此类题型,考生应首先确定主题,然后再动笔。

  1)图画题型写作要点

  ①详细查看图画。考生应对图画进行全面而细致的研究,尤其注意图画中人或物(人与物)的体貌表情特征和背景,确定人物之间,人物与背景之间的主要关系,以便正确掌握图画所传达的信息。

  ②如果图画以系列形式(既两幅以上)出现,考生除了掌握每一幅图画的信息,还应该对图画之间的相应联系有所理解,从而在整体上把握图画所传达的信息。

  ③面对图画题型,考生应该展开合理而丰富的联想,用生动而恰当的言辞抒发自己对图画的所思所想所感。

  ④注意图画题型中的文字提示。文字提示非常重要,文字提示通常十分清楚地提供一些写作要点。

  ⑤草拟提纲,合理组织材料。根据图画内容的不同采用不同的段落发展方式。如果画面内容是以描述为主,即按空间方位或时间先后顺序排列,可采用“开头——扩展——结尾”的写作方式。如果画面内容是以解释说明为主,写作时则先给出主题句,再围绕主题句完成各段落的写作,这是采用“主题句——扩展句——总结句”的写作方式。

  ⑥系统且突出地展开段落。展开段落要根据画面内容进行,同时也要围绕每一段的主题句进行。

  ⑦检查与修改。考生应重点检查图画内容是否准确地被表达出来,题目所给提示是否完整地反映在文章之中。如果存在与画面不相符的内容,或未能完全涵盖题目所给提示,考生应对文章做出相应修订。

  2)图画题型写作试题实例

  ①写作题目

  Directions:

  Study the pictures carefully and write an essay about 200 words based on the following:

  1. describe the set of drawings and interpret its meaning

  2. point out its implications in our life

  ②参考范文:

  Shakespeare has ever stated that I came, I suffered and I survived, which gives us much for thought about our life and development.

  The set of drawings above vividly depicts the destiny of a flower in two different living circumstances. As is shown in the first drawing, the flower is placed in a cozy green house which shelters it from the severe wind and storm. With proper temperature and other good conditions, the flower is growing in full bloom. In contrast, when removed from the green house and exposed to the wind and storm, the flower immediately fades and withers, with most of its petals cast about on the ground. The purpose of the drawings is to reveal the fact that the flower growing in the green house can not withstand the ordeal of the wind and storm, yet the implied meaning subtly conveyed should be takensintosaccount more seriously. The weak flower is naturally associated with our young people, to be exact, the only children in our current society; the green house epitomizes our parents’excessive doting care and material supplies that can protect the children from the wind and storm, to be specific, the harsh reality. Once our young people begin to seek independence and face challenges from the real competitive world, they are found too spoiled to be strong enough to endure the hardships and difficulties of various sorts.

  In sum, it is essential for our young people to derive positive implications from the above thought-provoking drawings. On the one hand, we can frequently employ them to enlighten ourselves to be more independent in life. On the other hand, our parents should be sensible enough to offer children more right and freedom to cope with their own troubles and problems. Only by undergoing more predicaments can young people develop strong personality and ability needed in the future, and only in this way can they eventually become winners in our competitive changing world. (326 words)

  3.表格和图表题型写作

  目前,表格和图表题型是考研英语写作中较为常见的题型之一,也是难度较大的一种写作题型,故考生应对此类题型加强练习,熟练掌握。

  1)表格和图表题型写作要点

  ①考生应仔细研究题目以及提示信息,看准、看清图表中的数字、线条、阴影等部分的变化趋势和走向,然后根据图表所显示的中心信息确定内容层次以及主题句。

  ②考生应该仔细观察分析图表所给出的大量信息,从中选取最重要,最有代表性,最核心的信息,然后根据全文的主旨去组织运用所获取的关键信息。考生应切忌简单地罗列图表所给出的信息。

  ③表格和图表题型写作一般采用一般现在时,但如果图表给出了具体时间参照,考生则应对时态进行相应的调整。

  ④表格和图表题型要求考生使用一些固定句型和表达法,考生应对此融会贯通。

  ⑤表格和图表题型可以细分为表格,曲线图、柱形图和圆形图。除了上述共同要点,考生还应弄懂这四种图在写作方面的各自特点。

  表格形式要求考生对表格中所给出的大量数字进行比较分析,从中找出其变化规律。

  曲线图形式要求考生认真观察坐标系所显示的数据信息,并且密切注意交汇在坐标横轴和纵轴上的数字及单位。

  柱形图形式要求考生通过宽度相等的柱形的高度或长度差别来判断事物的动态发展趋势,故考生应密切关注坐标线上的刻度单位及图表旁边的提示说明与文字。

  圆形图形式旨在要求考生准确理解并阐述一个被分割成大小不等切片的圆形图所传达的信息。考生应清楚掌握部分与整体,部分与部分之间的相互关系,这种关系通常是以百分比的数字形式给出的。

  ⑥列出各段的主题句。考生可以根据所给提纲或已知信息列出每段的主题句,为全文的展开铺平道路。

  ⑦严格围绕主题句展开段落。

  ⑧检查与修改。表格与图表写作的检查与修改应着重检查文章中所列举的信息是否与图表所显示的信息一致。

  2)表格和图表题型的核心句型

  3)表格和图表题型写作试题实例

  ①写作题目

  Directions:

  A. Study the following graphs carefully and write an essay in about 200 words.

  B. Your essay must be written neatly on ANSWER SHEETⅡ.

  C. Your essay should cover these three points:

  1. effect of the country’s growing human population on its wildlife

  2. possible reason for the effect

  3. your suggestion for the wildlife protection

  ②参考范文

  As is shown by the two graphs, during the period of time from 1800 to 1900, with the explosive growth of the U.S. population, the number of species no longer existing shot up, amounting to 70 in 1990. It is apparent that the population explosion resulted in the sharp decline in the wildlife of the country. What brought about this phenomenon?

  There are, I do think, two possible reasons for the fact. To begin with, the ever-increasing population needs more land to grow crops and more space to live in. Consequently, there is less and less niche in the U.S. for wildlife. Moreover, a number of newly built factories keep discharging harmful gases and liquids, which seriously pollute the environment. This has disturbed the ecological balance, contributing to the extinction of some wildlife.

  In my view, three strong measures should be taken to solve the problem. In the first place, the birth rate in the U.S. must be put under control because the rapidly growing population leads to serious environmental crisis. Secondly, the U.S. government is supposed to create as many nature reserves as possibleswheresall the native species of wild animals can be kept from being hunted and all the native species of plants can grow vigorously. Last and not least, it is urgent for the authorities to set up a foundation to reward those who do much to protect wildlife. (233 words)

  4.情景题型写作

  1)情景题型写作要点

  情景题型写作没有具体题目,仅仅规定一定的情景,这是一种指导性较强的写作题型,考生千万不要脱离情景,而应严格依照题目所规定的情景构思短文。特别注意以下几点:

  ①情景式写作要求考生在题目规定的情景内展开构思,组织内容。

  ②仔细审题。考生应明确题目所提供的情景,是论证还是说明,是叙事还是写景。

  ③确定段落与主题句。各段的主题句使文章有条有理,同时也使考生对自己所要表达的内容有更具体的把握。

  ④平稳地展开段落。主题句一经确定,考生便可以围绕主题句,展开段落,完成全文的写作。段落的展开应该建立在段落情景基础之上,每段的重点都应集中于描述情景规定内容。

  ⑤考生的每一词每一句应紧扣情景,突出重点,前后连贯,表达清楚,符合逻辑。

  ⑥明确题型种类。情景写作可根据内容写成不同文体,如记叙文、论说文、书信报告等,故考生应该注意灵活运用相应文体的写作方法与技巧。

  ⑦认真检查与修改。考生应重点检查是否完全准确地包含了情景所要求的各方面内容,是否有与情景相悖或不相关的内容。

  2)情景题型写作实例

  ①考试题目:

  Some people hold onto the idea that money and property offer more opportunities for success in our society; others think that education provide more opportunities for success in our society. Present your perspective on the issue, using relevant reasons and/or examples to support your views.

  ②参考范文:

  Which factor offers more opportunities for success in our society: education or money and property? In my view, education has replaced money and property as the main provider of such opportunities today. I base my view on two reasons. First, education—particularly higher education—used to be amiable only to the wealthy but now is accessible to almost anyone.

  Second, because of the civil-rights movement and resulting laws, businesses are now required to hire on the basis of merit rather than the kinds of personal relations traditionally common among the wealthy.

  Education always plays a key role in determining one’s opportunities for success. But in the past, good post-secondary education was available mainly to the privileged classes.

  Because money and property largely determined one’s access to higher education, money and property really were the critical factors in opening doors to success. However, higher education is more egalitarian today. Given our vast numbers of state universities and financial-aid programs, virtually anyone who meets entrance requirements for college can obtain an excellent college education and open up windows of opportunity in life. Another reason those opportunities will be open to educated young people from middle-class and poorer backgrounds is that hiring is more merit-oriented today than ever before. In principle, at least, our country has always been a societyswheresall people are equal: yet in the past, children of the wealthy and well-connected could expect to obtain higher-status jobs and to receive better pay. But the laws and programs resulting from our civil-rights struggles have produced a modern business climate in which jobs are available on an equal-opportunity basis, and in which candidates have a legal right to be judged on the merit of their educational background and experience. In conclusion, education is probably the main factor in opening doors to success for young people in our society. The fact that education has supplanted money and property in this role is attributable to a more egalitarian system of higher education, as well as to more merit-based hiring practices that generally value individual education over family fortune or relation. (347 words)

  5.摘要题型写作

  摘要题型写作是难度非常大的一种写作形式。随着考生英语水平的不断提高,这种题型引起考生的普遍重视。

  1)摘要题型写作要点:

  ①动笔之前,考生一定要认真仔细地阅读所给原文,弄懂原文大意,掌握原文要点。

  ②摘要的长度一般是原文的四分之一或五分之一,考试时应遵守规定的字数限制。

  ③在做摘要时考生切忌照搬原文。

  ④摘要应与原文的观点保持一致,并且仍按原文的逻辑顺序排列。

  ⑤重点反映主要观点,删除细节。

  ⑥简化从句,用简短的语句代替冗长的语句。

  ⑦检查与修改时,考生应重点检查是否遗漏了原文的要点或包含了细节。

  2)摘要题型写作实例

  ①试题题目

  Directions:

  Study the following essay carefully and write a summary in about 80 words.

  We continue to share with our remotest ancestors the most tangled and evasive attitudes about death, despite the great distance we have come in understanding some of the profound aspects of biology. We have as much distaste for talking about personal death as for thinking about it; it is an indelicacy, like talking in mixed company about venereal disease or abortion in the old days. Death on a grand scale does not bother us in the same special way: we can sit around a dinner table and discuss war, involving 60 billion volatilized human deaths, as though we were talking about bad weather; we can watch abrupt bloody death every day, in color, on films and television, without blinking back a tear. It is when the numbers of dead are very small, and very close, that we begin to think in scurrying circles. At the very center of the problem is the naked cold deadness of one’s own self, the only reality in nature of which we can have absolute certainty, and it is unmentionable, unthinkable. We may be even less willing to face the issue at first hand than our predecessors because of a secret new hope that maybe it will go away. We like to think, hiding the thought, that with all the marvelous ways in which we seem now to lead nature around by the nose, perhaps we can avoid the central problem if we just become, next year, say, a bit smarter. (246 words)

  ②原文要点:

  1. continue to have the most confused ideas of death like predecessors

  2. avoid talking about death

  3. talk about death when millions of people die

  4. become confused and anxious when each time the dead people are very few and the death rates are almost equal

  5. people’s fearfulness

  6. seem to control nature

  7. avoid death

  ③参考摘要:

  People dislike talking about death because they just like their predecessors still have the vaguest ideas of the issue. They talk about death only when million upon millions of people are killed in war. When they find only very few people die each time and the death rates are almost equal, they become very anxious, thinking that next time they themselves will meet their doom. Therefore, they fear very much. However, they have a hope that when they control nature, they can avoid death.(84 words)

  6.书信题型写作

  书信题型写作是常见的功能性写作形式,考生应该对书信写作的具体细节有整体的把握。

  1)书信写作要点:

  ①日期

  写信人应将写信日期(年、月、日)放在书信正文的右上角,如Jan. 20th , 2004。

  ②称呼

  称呼是写信人对收信人的称谓,称呼可以根据收信人的性别、职务、婚姻状况、姓名等个人信息来写,如:Mr. Williams, Mrs. Bush, Professor Li, Dr. Smith, Dear Mum and Dad。如果写信人不清楚收信人的具体姓名、职务等情况,可以写:Dear Sir or Madam、To whom it may concern。

  ③正文

  正文是书信的主要部分,在称呼下方隔一或两行处开始。考生写正文时,要分层次进行。书信正文通常由引言、展开段和结尾三个层次组成。

  •引言引言表明写信人的写信目的和写信背景,一般仅限于一段,一两句话即可。

  •展开段展开段内容应详实、具体。可以分为若干段来写,每一段围绕一个主题进行展开。

  •结尾结尾部分通常比引言部分短,使用一两句话表达一下希望或祝愿。

  ④结束语

  结束语是写信人对收信人的谦称,写在正文下面二至三行处。公务等较正式的信件多采用Yours sincerely, Sincerely yours, Yours faithfully, Yours truly等;私人信件,多采用Yours, With love, Yours affectionately等。

  ⑤签名

  签名应写在结束语的下面。

  2)书信题型写作实例

  ①试题题目:

  Directions:

  A. Write a job application letter of about 200 words

  B. Your letter should cover these three points:

  1. apply for the position of production coordinator

  2. describe your education background

  3. state your relevant working experience

  ②参考范文:

  Dear Sir,

  I am responding to your ad in the June 20th, 2003, issue of the Sunday Talent Journal for the position of production coordinator. I feel that my background in electronics and manufacturing will fit in well at your printed circuit board manufacturing facility.

  I will graduate from the Beijing Science & Technology University in June with a Bachelor of Science degree in Manufacturing Engineering. I have had extensive training on computers while at school. In my Production and Inventory class, I learned about computerized production and material scheduling in a job shop environment. While working for the Ministry of Energy and Transportation, I wrote a program to control the flow of equipment being checked out from the electronics lab.

  As shown in my resume, I have also repaired and installed fire alarm, security, and patient-signal systems when I worked at Johnson Controls. Most of the time I faced construction deadlines so I know what it is like to work under pressure. My duties as the supervisor for the electronics lab involved assigning jobs, coordinating schedules, training new employees, and working with the department chairman when needed.

  I am looking forward to hearing from you. Would you please call me to set up an interview? I can be reached at my resume address or by phoning (010) 2357-7980 after 4 p.m.

  Sincerely,

Li Ming

  七、考研英语写作模拟练习

  1.考研英语写作习题

  1)习题1(提纲+图表题型写作)

  Directions:

  A. Study the following pie charts carefully and write an essay in about 200 words.

  B. Your essay should cover these three points:

  ①current fact about graduates who take jobs irrelevant to their majors

  ②possible reasons for the fact

  ③your suggestion for the problem

  2)习题2 (提纲+书信题型写作)

  Directions:

  A. Read the following letter carefully and write a reply letter in about 200 words.

  B. Your letter should cover these three points

  ①your own view on fate

  ②possible examples about setbacks (挫折) before achieving success

  ③positive effect of setbacks

  Jan. 15th, 2004

  Dear Abe,

  I am a student at a university. These days I have been overwhelmed by a problem. Please give me some wise advice to help me out of it.

  I had thought that I would achieve a degree this year after three years of studying. This degree was my hope for the future. I had been sticking to the ideal that if I worked hard, I would be rewarded. I did not consider myself to be an ordinary college student. With this belief I have devoted myself to my studies and for many nights I burned the midnight oil. I had made much progress and did well on many exams. However, my recent failure in one exam stopped me from realizing my plans. I still have to wait for another year or two to obtain my degree. This was a great blow to me and damaged my ambitions for the future. I have become very depressed and cannot study. Why did I fail? Why am I not able to succeed like my fellow students? A fortune teller once told me that my“destiny wasn’t good.”I want to know if I should continue to study. I wonder whether my fate is bad or not.

  Sincerely

Guo

  3)习题3 (情景题型写作)

  Directions:

  Study the following topic carefully and write an essay in about 200 words.

  Why do you think some people are attracted to dangerous sports or other dangerous activities? Use Specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

  4)习题4 (摘要题型写作)

  Directions:

  Study the following essay carefully and write a summary in about 120 words.

  Student Rights

  By Jeff Bakersfield

  Who knows better than the students themselves what a university should do for them and how they should be treated? Yet how often

  do students have any say at all in such important issues as faculty selection, curriculum planning, and scheduling? The answer is obvious: never. If university administrations refuse to include student representatives in the decision-making process, something drastic must be done.

  Let’s examine what is happening right here on our own campus in the areas mentioned above. The first major issue is the selection of faculty members. Never in the history of this college has a student been permitted to interview, examine the credentials of, or even meet prospective professors. All hiring is done by a joint administrative-faculty committee, often made up of people who will not even have extensive dealings with the individuals after they begin teaching. Those who have the most at stake and whose lives and academic careers will be governed by the professors—the students themselves—never even meet the new teachers until the first class meeting. No one is better equipped to evaluate a professor’s ability to communicate with students than those whom he or she intends to teach. Anyone can read a curriculum vitae to ascertain the level of professional training and experience someone has had, but the best judges of a teacher’s ability to teach, which is the primary function of any professor, are undoubtedly the students themselves.

  Students’interest in and commitment to appropriate curricula are even more obvious. We have come to college with very specific purposes in mind: to prepare ourselves intellectually and practically for the future. We know what we need to learn insgroupsto compete successfully with others in our chosen fields. Why should we be kept out of the curriculum planning process? If we pay for the textbooks, spend hours in the library doing research, and burn the midnight oil studying for tests and exams, why are we not permitted to give our opinions about the materials we will spend so many hours studying? It is imperative that our views be made known to curriculum planners.

  Finally, the area of scheduling is of vital interest to students. The hours at which classes are offered affect the workings of our daily lives. Many of us must juggle work and class schedules, but often administrators ignore such problems when they schedule classes. Schedules must be convenient and flexible so that all students have equal opportunities to take the most popular classes and those which are most essential to their majors. If students helped with scheduling, never would there be two required courses offered at the same time for only one semester per academic year. Never would we have to wait two or three semesters to take a course that is a prerequisite for other desired courses, nor would we have to race across campus in ten minutes to get from one class to the next. Students are vitally concerned with the scheduling area.

  In the 1960s and early 1970s, students were not too shy or fearful to demonstrate against the injustices they saw in the draft system and the Vietnam conflict. Why should students today be afraid to voice their opinions about the very important issues that affect their very lives? It is imperative that students act to protect their own rights. Fellow university students, I urge that you meet together and draw up demands to be presented to the administration. We must take the future in our own hands, not be led to it like passive sheep. Let us act now so that we will not be sorry later!

  2.考研英语写作习题范文

  1)习题1范文:

  From the charts we can see that compared with 7 percent in 1991, there are 30 percent of the graduates whose jobs are irrelevant to their majors in 2002, excluding those who continue to study. People may wonder what makes it increasingly difficult for college graduates to get a rewarding desirable job.

  The possible reasons may be illustrated as follows. One reason is that many colleges and universities fail to adapt their courses to the change and development of the economy. Some degree courses offered by these institutions of higher learning are so outdated, irrelevant and impractical that the students themselves find it difficult to apply their book knowledge to practice. Another reason is that there is an oversupply of college graduates in some certain specialties, and it keeps increasing. So many of them can not enter the profession for which they are trained and have to take other jobs which are not relevant to their majors.

  The problems college students encounter in job hunting deserve the attention of the whole society. The colleges and universities should first make their courses meet the needs of industry and business so as to suit the on-going development of national economy. Besides, the government should provide college graduates with more opportunities to display their skills. (212 words)

  2)习题2范文:

  Jan, 19th, 2004

  Dear Guo,

  I believe that we make our own fate. The control we have in our lives to make decisions that affect our future is part of fate. And though there are many outside factors acting upon our lives that we cannot control, we still have a choice about how to react to them.

  The most successful people in this world did not achieve their positions without getting knocked down a few times. What kind of world would we live in if all of our most notable achievers and inventors threw in the towel after their first setbacks? The Wright brothers probably crashed their“flying machine”numerous times before achieving flight. The real test of a dream or ambition comes when it is most in danger of being snuffed. If I presented your question to my high-school football coach he would most likely say,“Quitters don’t win and winners don’t quite. Now go and run 50 laps.”

  My coach wasn’t known for his people skills nor his tact, but he would have a point. The point is that fighting through problems to achieve your dreams often sweetens success. Dreams that are too easily realized or goals that are achieved without any hardship often go unappreciated. Instead of using your frustration against yourself and progress, try using it to strengthen your resolve to succeed. Let the world know that you refuse to be so easily knocked down. This won’t be easy. The difficulty and the journey are part of what makes them special. As for fortune tellers, well, if they always told people good news they would be out of a job. (277 words)

  Yours

Abe

  3)习题3范文:

  The Attraction of Dangerous Activities

  In the past, people often faced many dangers in their daily lives. They had to cope with not only natural disasters and frequent outbreaks of disease, but also dangerous animals and warfare. The need to hunt and to protect their territory from other people required them to be skilled in the use of weapons. In addition, any travel also involved great risk as there were few roads and bridges. Nowadays, people do not have to live with such dangers on a daily basis, and yet many people choose to involve themselves in risky activities such as dangerous sports and other dangerous activities. I believe the following reasons can explain the attraction of such activities.

  One reason people are attracted to risky activities is that they crave excitement. The thrill of mountain climbing or bungee jumping can satisfy their need to break out of their routine. Without the excitement of such sports, they may feel bored with their lives. Another reason people like such activities is that these activities often require a certain amount of skill.

  Learning to drive a racecar or hand-glide may satisfy the desire to excel and give the participant a feeling of accomplishment and personal confidence in his abilities. A final reason that people may choose to engage in risky activities is that they want to stand out from the crowd. By developing a skill that others don’t have, they can feel unique.

  For all of these reasons, I believe that risky activities will continue to be popular with some people. In fact, it seems that as soon as one activity becomes safer or commonplace, thrill seekers come up with a new way to challenge their skills and courage. (282 words)

  4)习题4范文:

  Summary :

  In his essay,“Student Rights,”Jeff Bakersfield stated that students had the right to be involved in university administrative decisions. Using the current situation on his own college campus as an example, he emphasized that students should be i
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